Synapses & MS: An interview with Dr. Ben Barres

Following last month's webcast, Promising MS Research to Repair, Protect and Restore the Nervous System, we sat down with Dr. Ben Barres, Professor and Chair of Neurobiology at Stanford University's School of Medicine, to explore the exciting research he and his team are doing in the area of nervous system repair.

Dr. Barres, would you tell us a little bit about the work you’re doing in nerve connections and the leads you’re following in this area?

My lab is focused on understanding the role of glial cells in the brain. There are two different types of glial cells: oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Many of you may have learned that oligodendrocytes cover the nerve fibers with myelin, which is damaged by MS. But the astrocytes, in particular, are a very mysterious class of brain cell. Making up about 40% of cells in the brain, they’re large cells that each ensheath (or cover) thousands of synapses (points of contact through which a signal is transferred from one neuron to the next).

The questions we’re asking in my lab are: What do the astrocytes do normally? And what do they do in diseases like MS? This has been one of the longstanding mysteries in neurobiology. Up until this point, we haven’t known what nearly half of our cells in our brain do. We know that neurons form the neural circuits, but what is the role of astrocytes in this process?

One of the things my lab has done over the years is develop tools to get at this question. We’ve found ways to purify astrocytes from the brain, allowing us to study what neurons do by themselves, as well as what they need the astrocytes for. Through this research, we’ve found that the astrocytes are actually in the driver’s seat when it comes to controlling the formation of synapses – almost like an on/off switch. If you take away the astrocytes, the neurons fail to form synapses, which was a big surprise.

When I started working on this 20 years ago, everyone thought astrocytes were just passive support cells that were cleaning up after the neurons. What we know now is that not only are astrocytes controlling synapse formation, but they also control the strength of synapses once they’re formed and the elimination of synapses. And we think that by better understanding astrocytes, we’re going to learn much more about how synapses work and how to rebuild synapses after injury.

Now that we understand the role of astrocytes in healthy cells, can you tell us about what happens in MS?

In neurodegenerative diseases, including MS, newer studies have shown that in addition to white matter damage (demyelination) there is also grey matter damage, neuron cell bodies and synapses are actually degenerating as well. Initially the brain has the ability to rebuild myelin, and also lost synapses, but as the disease progresses the pace at which synapses degenerate may outpace the brain’s ability to repair lost synapses. At a certain point, some individuals move into the neurodegenerative phase, also known as secondary-progressive MS.

At this phase, axons degenerate – in part because they’re losing their myelin. But scientists are now realizing that synapses are also being lost at this time. And quite possibly these two processes are connected. If this is the case, we need medications that will not only rebuild myelin, but also prevent the loss of synapses or stimulate reformation of synapses. Therapies that block synapse loss may also block axon loss and help to promote remyelination. Our hope is that rebuilding synapses will rebuild the circuit and allow normal function of that circuit.

What work is your lab doing in this area?

We’ve done a lot of work in understanding how these synapses are being lost. It’s been known for a long time that in normal brain development there’s excess generation of synapses and that the excess synapses – those that are not needed, or are formed in the wrong place, or are too weak to function correctly – are pruned back through a process called synapse elimination.

A few years ago, while working on something unrelated, my lab inadvertently discovered that an immune system pathway known as the classical complement cascade, which wasn’t even thought to be normally operating in the brain, was actually highly activated in a normal developing brain right at synapses.

This was such an exciting discovery because the classical complement cascade is an important part of the immune system outside of the brain. It collects bacteria, unwanted debris and dead cells and allows them to be cleaned up by other immune cells, almost like a garbage collector. While this has been well studied in the immune system outside of the brain, nobody knew that this same “clean up” process also took place within the brain. We discovered that the complement pathway was getting rid of excess synapses in the developing brain in a similar manner.

In the normal brain, this whole process turns off after synapse development is over. But in neurodegenerative diseases like MS or Alzheimer’s, this pathway turns on again and begins to kill off the synapses. Something happens to cause the complement cascade to inaccurately recognize healthy synapses as unhealthy and attack them. That makes the complement cascade a very attractive target – if we can develop therapies that target this pathway, we can potentially inhibit it and prevent the loss of nerve connections.

We need to do much more work to confirm this, but I’m very suspicious that this process is controlling the conversion from relapsing-remitting MS to the secondary-progressive phase of the disease. You need synaptic connections for axons to stay healthy. When the synapses start to die, the axons start to die as well.

If this hypothesis is true, what could this mean for people with MS?

In every phase of the disease synapses are being lost and this is a new way of thinking about the disease and approaching treatment. People have been so focused on the immune system and myelin, but this work would suggest that we need to also look at ways to block the synapse degeneration part of the disease.

While this work is primarily focused on stopping disease progression, the brain has tremendous capacity to repair itself. Even though targeting the complement system isn’t going to block the initial cause of the disease, it could be therapeutic in preventing progression and allowing the brain more leeway to repair itself.

How does nerve regeneration relate to all of this?

In the progressive phase of the disease, when axons are lost you have a problem. Because you no longer have a circuit, there’s nothing to myelinate. That’s when you start to see progressive dysfunction. One ideal approach to therapy would be to block degeneration on the front end, but many people have already experienced nerve degeneration and would like to have some repair of their neurological function. What we need to do for these people is to find a way to get their axons to regenerate. This has traditionally been a stumbling block on the part of neuroscience. There has been a lot of progress in the past 20 to 30 years to step-by-step dismantle this problem. And in just the last five years, there have been some really exciting steps forward. In fact we’re now able to get axons to regenerate in animal models with spinal cord injuries.

For people with any neurological injury, axon loss is invariably part of the injury. So far, scientists have only been able to get axons to regrow in the optic nerves – an area of the brain involving vision that can play a significant role in MS. Now scientists are working to get axons to regrow in the spinal cord and other parts of the brain. They’re also working to understand when axons regrow in the brain whether or not they will make the correct synaptic connections needed to accurately rebuild neural circuits. There have been exciting discoveries in this area in the last year, with research showing amazing capacity for these axons to extend and find their way back to the right place in the brain. More research needs to be done in this area, but I think this is going to lead to huge medical breakthroughs in restoring vision.

Is there anything else you would you like people with MS to know about the research that is going on in this area and what it means for them?

There’s never been a time in the history of mankind when scientific research progress has been so rapid. And in particular, the application of that research progress to disease treatment. These basic science discoveries are being converted into new treatments that are going into the clinic and being tested at an unprecedented rate. I think there is tremendous hope that new therapies are going to be generated in the next several years that will be very helpful to people with MS and other diseases.
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    54 Comments

  • Karen P   Jan 17, 2014 10:49 AM
    I have PP MS, will this research help me?
  • Clive   Jan 17, 2014 11:10 AM
    Learning of developments like this are always important as it means we are a step nearer to being able to cure MS. While we do not known how long it will take or the number of steps it is a step in the right direction
  • Debbie chambers   Jan 17, 2014 1:02 PM
    When will there be more trails in Canada . Nova Scotia is where i live would be great if I could participate in a clinical trail
    Thanks Debbie
  • Crystal gilbert   Jan 17, 2014 1:36 PM
    In your study are there better foods to eat that will and can help the brain repair itself. Thank you for all your hard work.
  • Heather Poole   Jan 17, 2014 3:41 PM
    I am wondering what a person can do to help the brain repair itself.
    Am glad to see someone is doing research that addresses this.
  • Bob Stanek   Jan 17, 2014 4:22 PM
    I need this. Yeah!
  • sophia   Jan 17, 2014 6:45 PM
    Good to hear hope it works.... I'd love to try it...
  • Lawrence   Jan 18, 2014 3:46 AM
    My wife has relapsing remitting MS at an early stage and any news of progress with research is so helpful. The work that Dr Barres and his peers here in Cambridge UK are doing gives both those with MS and their families great encouragement. We will watch from the sidelines and continue to raise funds to assist with all the work that is being done.
  • Arthetta   Jan 18, 2014 6:13 AM
    This gives a little hope.
  • Kathy J   Jan 18, 2014 7:25 AM
    This is very exciting news!
  • Tracy   Jan 18, 2014 1:43 PM
    I have had MS for 26 yrs and now have SPMS. This news is very exciting. I look forward to a time when medication can repair the damage caused by MS. Thanks to your lab for never giving up.
  • Tracy   Jan 18, 2014 1:43 PM
    I have had MS for 26 yrs and now have SPMS. This news is very exciting. I look forward to a time when medication can repair the damage caused by MS. Thanks to your lab for never giving up.
  • Linda   Jan 18, 2014 2:15 PM
    Thank you for your great work I have been living with MS for about 25 years.I'm doing better than most people with MS. you need to keep moving and never stop.
  • Bill Walker   Jan 18, 2014 3:10 PM
    Multiple Sclerosis Letter

    This is a letter of hope to anyone who has or knows someone with multiple sclerosis. I wasn’t aware that this could happen until I witnessed it happening to someone else with MS. So yes, this is a true story.
    About twelve years ago and not long after my own MS diagnosis I was volunteering at a thrift store for animal welfare on Whidbey Island in Washington State. The day I started I also found out that there was another volunteer who also had this yucky disease. And she was much worse off then I was. She described her disease as being responsible for her being blind in one eye and nearly blind in the other. She had to use braces to walk and even then it was extremely difficult. She said that she was always in pain and because of the numbness in both of her feet she hadn’t been able to feel anything in either foot for fourteen years.
    We talked quite a bit about our conditions so it didn’t surprise me when she came in one day and said that when she woke up that morning she felt different. When I asked what she meant by different she couldn’t really give me an answer other then she felt different. Little did either of us realize the miracle that was about to take place.
    About two weeks after our conversation she was in a complete remission. Her eye sight in both eyes had returned to 20/20. She had full feeling in both of her feet and no longer needed her braces because she could walk just fine without them.
    When I asked my Neurologist about this he stated, “Yes spontaneous remission is possible, but it’s very rare, so I wouldn’t get my hopes up to much.”
    I was like, are you kidding, sometimes hope is all people with MS have. And let’s put this into perspective. If MS can turn itself off almost as fast as it can come on then that means that there is some kind of a mechanism controlling it. And if we can find that switch then I could care less whether I have the disease or not as long as it stays turned off!
    And this gives me tremendous hope regardless of how rare it might be!

    Bill Walker
    wc.walker@yahoo.com
  • Harrison   Jan 18, 2014 10:59 PM
    Here's some research to brighten everyones day.

    Here's the groundbreaking research showing great hope for all!

    Dr. Damadian MD---inventor of the MRI Scanner--- conducted research indicating that one major cause of these pathologies is based on biomechanics of the cervical spine and CSF flow. He proves that it can usually be easily treated, with a noninvasive procedure.

    Dr. Damadian MD, tracked the Cerebral Spinal Fluid pressure and also measured alignment of top 2 bones in the necks of each patient before/after a precise Upper Cervical Chiropractic adjustment.

    Not only were patient symptoms relieved, but their Legions disappeared! Each patient's Atlas bone was out of place causing an interruption in the spinal canal where the Cerebral Spinal Fluid is supposed to flow without interruption.

    When the bone is placed back into biomechanical normal after a precise painless adjustment, the CSF is able to flow once again, the Vertebral arteries are cleared and patient condition resolves. Its very predictable, easily measurable, and duplicatable.

    Has your friend with M.S. visited an Upper Cervical Chiropractor yet?


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8KGFUlPGLE
  • mary chiles   Jan 21, 2014 5:17 AM
    I have had a cervical fusion. Can it be adjusted?
  • mary chiles   Jan 21, 2014 5:17 AM
    I have had a cervical fusion. Can it be adjusted?
  • Linda   Jan 21, 2014 9:32 AM
    I was diagnosed with MS when I was 60. I am 67 now. My MRI showed "over" 9 lesions on my brain. None on my spinal cord. My main symptom is chronic nerve pain, progressively getting worse. It's like I have a finger in an electrical socket all day long and I get nerve pain nearly everywhere, and it is growing. In my lower face (spreading), my my feet (especially), up my legs, growing into my trunk, my hands. It is a combination of numbness, tingling, fasciculations and pain. It is as if someone had a dial and turns it up and down. I want to know what causes that dial to be turned up but I can't figure it out. It is all foods? Certain foods? A glass a wine or beer? Walking? Not walking? Sitting, causing blood restriction? The three mild whiplash injuries? The Epstein Barre virus active in my system (I believe this. I had a bad case of mononucleosis when I was 16. I was laid low for three months, and never quite recovered). I would like to KNOW what MS drug YOU think helps the most RIGHT NOW. Seems like you would like one that is closest to your theory. Promoting good axons to form, and synapses. Are you allowed to tell me? Linda Gagnier, Kirkland, WA
  • Avatar
    haleytm11  Jan 21, 2014 12:21 PM
    Thank you for all you do Ben! You are an inspiring colleague.
  • Maria   Jan 21, 2014 1:35 PM
    I have a daughter,who is in a bad place with MS. She is 50 years old and has MS for 30 years, she has remitting demililation. She calls people ,all hours of the night to ask forgiveness for her if she ever hurt her. She tells me I have aphasia,and I need to ask forgiveness from the people I hurt in my lifetime. I think I understand what is going on in her brain,is there any help for her. She has been wheelchair bound for 5 years. She is very abusive to her family and to her doctors. She was always happy and understanding until the last 2 months. Any ideas what or where we could find help? We are located in Michigan
  • Maria   Jan 21, 2014 1:35 PM
    I have a daughter,who is in a bad place with MS. She is 50 years old and has MS for 30 years, she has remitting demililation. She calls people ,all hours of the night to ask forgiveness for her if she ever hurt her. She tells me I have aphasia,and I need to ask forgiveness from the people I hurt in my lifetime. I think I understand what is going on in her brain,is there any help for her. She has been wheelchair bound for 5 years. She is very abusive to her family and to her doctors. She was always happy and understanding until the last 2 months. Any ideas what or where we could find help? We are located in Michigan
  • Joni Crim   Jan 21, 2014 6:13 PM
    I have had MS for 40 years and am still walking, kind of slow but the pain in my legs bothers me a lot. I feel blessed to have family support and a husband who is an Angel with all of the support he gives me, I would love to be more help with house work and cooking and he has a job to hold down also, hope this treatment is approved soon
  • J Gould   Jan 22, 2014 11:33 AM
    Really interesting article and easy to understand for a lay person. This explains difference between PPMS and RRMS for me and why my close friend is deteriorating, despite being on Tysabri, while I am stable on the same meds.I feel confident that if my genes are going to cause my children to develop MS, this brilliant research will pave the way for new treatments to prevent disability.
  • Gary Gard   Jan 22, 2014 12:42 PM
    I am a Disabled Marine Vietnam Vet with several Agent Orange "and Others" related diseases, including Advanced Prostate Cancer, Diabetes II, Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia 2012, a Tumor on my heart in '81, and M.S. in 2001 ,on Rebif since 2005. The V.A. refuses service connection for M.S. unless symptoms occur within 7 years of exposure, but don't specify exposure to what ? Anyone know of any info connecting Agent Orange to M.S.? Semper Fi, Gary
  • Angela Geleta   Jan 22, 2014 3:29 PM
    Please keep up the good work. All your hard work is appreciated. Thank you very much.
  • dorinda schiermeister   Jan 23, 2014 8:42 AM
    Is their ever a chance a person can be included as part if the experiment. I have a Grandson who has MS is in a nursing home now. He has the progressive type. Thank you. Dorinda.
  • Sally   Jan 24, 2014 7:08 PM
    This is exciting news..The body has it's own way of repairing itself, but MS is such the puzzler...It would be such a day of celebration for thousands of us suffering everyday with MS if this could be fixed...I'm ready !
  • Paula Wright   Jan 25, 2014 5:44 AM
    30 years of MS... thank YOU for the research you are doing!! Synapse is the
    devils way to punish ... or protect? Axon ahead...
  • sisallegretto  Jan 25, 2014 9:03 AM
    I have RR and SP MS. This information gives me hope that a cure will be found in my lifetime. I am excited to read that work is already being done on the cervical spine because that is where most of my MS damage is. The MS damage to my cervical spine is causing much walking difficulty. I have a Bioness foot drop system and now need the thigh stimulator because it does not lift. But, I have to appeal the insurance once again to get the coverage.
    Thank you for the wonderful work you do and please keep it up. What a blessing you all are!
  • margie82  Jan 25, 2014 12:02 PM
    Thank you! Bless you. Bless all of those with this terrible disease.
  • margie82  Jan 25, 2014 12:03 PM
    !!!!
  • ecky Scott   Jan 25, 2014 12:48 PM
    THis is very encouraging. I need to work on foods that help my axons and vitamens, right?
  • patty   Jan 25, 2014 1:06 PM
    How do you get axons to regrow in the optic nerves?
  • Eddie Nash   Jan 25, 2014 1:53 PM
    There is an answer to MS and many other autoimmune conditions! My wife underwent the HSCT and I can tell you the answer is here NOW: http://youtu.be/n-vo-n5awjk
  • dillard   Jan 26, 2014 5:48 AM
    I WAS DIANOISED IN 1999 AS HAVING BIPOLOR DISORDER. I WAS PUT ON MEDS AND MY LIFE WAS TOTALLY RUINED. LATER, I FOUND OUT THAT IT WAS THE MS, AND I HAVE OVER 300 LESIONS, EVERYWHERE IN MY BRAIN BUT I STILL WALK AROUND AND DO FINE EXCEPT FOR COGNITION. I CANNOT REMEMBER THINGS OR FORGET BUT I ALWAYS CAN REMEMBER THE FIRST LETTER OF A PERSONS NAME, ALWAYS, BUT FORGET THEIR NAME. I SO NOT TAKE ANY BIPOLAR MEDS BUT FOR THAT ONE TERRIBLE YEAR SO I KNOW THAT IF I HAVENT HAD TO RELY ON BIPOLAR MEDS AND THEN I WAS GIVEN A MRI THAT DISCOVERED THESE MANY LESIONS THEN IT WAS AN MS EXACERBATION, AND DUE TO MS. I AM ON TYSABRI AND IT HAS DID THE MOST FOR ME. I DO HAVE TWO LESIONS ON MY BRAIN STEM. I WAIT FOR A DAY THAT THERE IS A WAY TO REMYLENATE THE BRAIN. MAYO CLINIC AND DUKE ARE WORKING ON THIS. I THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX SINCE I HAVE HAD A GRANDDAUGHTER WITH MPS I AND HAD A UNRELATED CORD BLOOD STEM CELL TRANSPLANT AND IS ALMOST 14 NOW SO I DO THINK IT POSSIBLE BUT PLEASE LET US KNOW MORE AND WHAT KIND OF TIME LIMIT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT? HOPEFULLY AND RESPECTFULLY WAITING!!!
  • Laura   Jan 26, 2014 9:30 AM
    Just thinking outside the box looking for anything that can help my 14yr old daughter born with a neuronal migration disorder called subcortical band heterotopia, the mildest of the Lissencephalies. She has a thick band of neurons in her cortex that could never migrate when in utero. She is epileptic suffering from tonic clonic seizures about 15x/month. She is intellectually delayed and violent.
  • Pat Breitenstein   Jan 26, 2014 7:42 PM
    I liked your article very much. Thank you.
  • JACKIE FLOWERS   Jan 28, 2014 10:03 PM
    I live in rural south Ga. around Moultrie ,Ga. No one in the medical field nos a damn thing about MS. . Dr.'s need to be educated and ER staff especially. Colquitt Regional Medical Center is the worst so far. . and why do the pain clinics have to treat you like a common druggie ? What is the best drug to take for MS ?
  • Avatar
    szeevster  Jan 30, 2014 3:37 AM
    I wonder why he fails to mention the third and most immune-related of the glial cells of the brain, the microglia. It can't be because he isn't aware of them, they represent more than 10% of all brain cells. Such errors frustrate me and do damage to the faith people put in researchers. He owes us an apology and a correction.
  • Paul O'Lone   Jan 30, 2014 9:30 AM
    In 1993 I was on top of the word because I just won the Mr. North America Bodybuilding competition then I was diagnosed with MS in 1998 that progressed to me having to use a wheelchair in 2000. I was very depressed and never wanted to leave my house.
    so I bought a treadmill and held on for dear life because I could not walk so to support my legs so I had to use in arms to hold on to the side rails off the treadmill.
    I also started focusing on exercising the core muscles which are also considered a stabilizer muscles meaning your abdominals, hips and your back and when those muscles become weak it's much like a flower with the week stem that falls over when the wind blows.
    In 2001 I open a gym called Accessible fitness and we specialize in exercise programs for people with MS and spinal cord injuries.
    I still cant run but I am still walking and I feel thankful to God everyday that my legs are still working for me but for that to happen I had to do something about it.
    I believe that the best defense we have against the MS is our mind and exercise because if you think you're getting worse then you probably will and if you believe you're getting better then your body might listen to you.
  • Robyn   Jan 31, 2014 11:22 PM
    I am beyond frustrated. If I did a checklist of all the things I have dealt with since 2005 physically, It would be almost 100% MS symptoms but MRI always comes out normal. Doctor tried to get my insurance to do a Spine MRI but it was denied. She sent me to a neurologist who just looked at me like I was making everything up and did't believe most of what I said and didn't see the necessity for a spine MRI and is sending me for a sleep study. Worst of all, daily I am in so much pain I could scream but cry instead. Gabapentin isn't working and makes me tired and grumpy, baclofen isnt working even though I have upped my dose personally, also just making me tired. They both worked fine over the last couple of weeks but not so much recently. I dont know what to do, I have been tested, and tested and tested again and still no diagnosis. I cant stand for long periods, cant sit for long periods, today I couldn't walk without pain across my shoulders. I would go to the doctor but why, whats the point. I am having all kinds of weird tingling on my face and head and sometimes it moves throughout my body but the neurologist didn't seem to think it was important. He did the regular, hit your points with the little hammer thingie and stand with your feet together, walk towards me kind of stuff and sent me on my way. They always try to say its depression or anxiety but honestly if I felt better and wasn't so tired all the time, I would have no stress or anxiety. Without some sort of diagnosis I cant get any help while attending college or anything else. I am beyond frustrated. I am telling you, I can tick off 90% or more of any MS checklist. Maybe I don't have MS, maybe I am just a nut job. I really don't know.
  • Brandie   Feb 1, 2014 7:37 PM
    What are everyone's feelings regarding Neurontin/Lyrica?
  • bmartini  Feb 1, 2014 7:51 PM
    Robyn, sounds like we're in the same boat! I've been tested & retested multiple times! It's soooo incredibly frustrating, especially when you're just looking for an answer as to why things are happening. What is this random numbness in my face or leg? Why am I having weird uncontrolled tremors in my hands? Medicine is great... if it worked... I pray we find our answer soon & hopefully something can be done to curb the symptoms & stress of it all!
  • bmartini  Feb 1, 2014 7:54 PM
    Would anyone be willing to share their pre-diagnosis stories & experiences?
  • Annie McGuinness   Feb 8, 2014 3:30 AM
    Though my husband has Complicated HSP It will be wonderful if this research can over lap with research being done in this field.
  • Lauren Mack   Feb 20, 2014 3:51 PM
    I am so thankful for all your hard work! I have new hope because of your detailed explanation of the process! Keep up the great research you are doing!
  • Hepp   Feb 27, 2014 12:59 PM
    I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the excellent quality writing, it's rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.
  • johnkoz84  Mar 9, 2014 11:00 PM
    @ brandie. My name is John, living with RRMS. I was on Nuerontin for about a year. The pain in my legs and feet only got worse. As this was going on, they kept bumping up my dose because of the pain. I was on 1200mg. 3X daily! When I got better insurance, went to Lyrica.. I quickly found out that the Nuerontin was only making my pain worse. I cant say the same for everyone. but that little difference in the two medications can mean a lot!!! Stay with whatever works for you. Good Luck, and keep moving on!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:29 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:29 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:30 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:30 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:30 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!
  • Lisa Scroggins   Apr 4, 2014 4:30 PM
    It is so easy to become discouraged! Because of the very nature of this awful disease, no two people have the same symptoms, course, or reaction to treatment. Is it any wonder that people feel crazy? As I read this post, I found it discouraging, because from the doctor's description, my axons AND synapses are dying. But then I read the post from the man about exercise! Thanks for that!